The essence of IVF
The essence of IVF is as follows. Sperm and eggs “meet” in a test tube and then are implanted into the uterus. Often the procedure leads to the formation of several fetuses – twins, triplets are conceived. This is since several oocytes are used for IVF. If a woman is not ready to become a multiple mother, the extra embryos are removed, but this may lead to the death of the others.
Main indications for IVF in women
The main indication for in vitro fertilization is the tubal factor of infertility. The fallopian tubes may be absent at all (removed due to ectopic pregnancy or inflammation), completely impassable or partially passable. Some women have a particular structure (very convoluted, narrow, or, conversely, with areas of expansion), which naturally makes it difficult to deliver sperm to the egg. In IVF, the tubes are not involved, as fertilization is performed in vitro.
Other indications for artificial insemination include:
- surrogate motherhood;
- high risks of genetic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities;
- impaired fertility;
- long period of infertility.
On the other hand, there are contraindications to IVF in women. The method is not used if the patient is diagnosed with:
- abnormalities of the uterus that prevent carrying a child;
- malignant neoplasms (including past ones);
- ovarian tumor;
- severe somatic pathologies;
- diabetes mellitus;
- psychiatric disorders.
The main indications for IVF in men
It is not uncommon that the problem lies in the man, and only IVF can solve it. It is appointed if the surgical method for so-called obstructive infertility is not suitable or was unsuccessful. Other indications are:
- retrograde ejaculation, when the semen is ejected into the bladder instead of being squeezed into the uterus through the penis. in these cases, semen is taken from the testicular tissue;
- inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse;
- azoospermia, in which the genital glands do not produce sperm at all – IVF is performed using donor sperm;
- high genetic risks.
Contraindications to IVF in men are relative, and thanks to advances in medicine almost any problem is solved. The most common cases where IVF is not prescribed are:
- genital infections;
- poor sperm quality, due to which doctors assess the chances of fertilization as low;
- oncology and upcoming treatments (radiation therapy, chemotherapy).
Indications for IVF are determined after a complete examination of the man and woman. The doctor prescribes an ultrasound of the endometrium and ovaries, fallopian tubes patency test, spermogram, blood tests for hormones, studies for the presence of urogenital tract infections. Based on the results obtained, the doctor may work out an effective course of treatment for the couple without IVF, or alternatively prescribe artificial insemination as the most effective way to have the long-awaited child.